The main problem on chilli crop is pest attack such as Spodoptera litura [7], thrips, ... Another factor that affects the decrease in the number of leaves is the presence of pest attacks Aphis gossipy causes leaf malformations to become curved, perming, shrinking, thickening, chlorosis and declining before adulthood. Chile pepper growing tips how to grow hot peppers from seed to harvest. Thrips parvispinus was found on all plants surveyed by the number dominates. Crude sap from symptomatic leaves of Cucumis sativus was, Describes the cultivation of tomato Lycopersicon esculentum, green pepper Capsicum annuum and aubergine Solanum melongena; and of melon Cucumis melo, cucumber C. sativus and courgettes Cucurbita spp.-P.J.Jarvis, SummaryA series of experiments were conducted to evaluate the effect of oxamyl in combination with the soil fumigants 1,3-D, metam sodium and methyl bromide on nematode damage and fruit yield in vegetables. Remove heavily infested plants from the field. The proportion of foliar terminals with visible thrips damage was also significantly lower in spinosad treatments plants at 12–34 DAT (Table 2). Chilli thrips attack more than 130 different types of plants that grow in Texas. Based on the serological relationships of NPs, tospoviruses are classified into three serogroups and four distinct serotypes. Adult chilli thrips have pale bodies with dark wings and typically are less than 2 mm in length. Thousands of new, high-quality pictures added every day. Advances in serological and molecular techniques have also led to identification of new tospoviruses. Global trade and associated movement of plant materials across borders have introduced tospoviruses and their vectors into newer areas. The range of species attacking the same plant in different parts of the world and how differences in pest status of individual thrips species on a single crop vary from one geographical area to another are presented. In line with research conducted by. Chilli thrips is a polyphagous pest. You may be more familiar with the western flower thrips (Frankliniella occidentalis). In your vegetable garden, keep watch on your tomatoes, beans, chilies and peppers. Thrips-transmitted tospoviruses cause severe yield losses to several economically important crops in the United States and worldwide. These experiments indicate the potential of oxamyl to reduce root-knot nematode infection and increase yields of vegetables when combined with soil fumigation by 1,3-D and/or metam sodium. The attacks which was caused by the thrips starting from mild to severe attacks. Chilli thrips are important pests of roses and other ornamental plants causing feeding damage that results in characteristic leaf and bud scarring, discoloration, and deformation. critically for significant intellectual content. Use sticky traps to monitor thrips populations. There is a high potential for reductions in tree carbon status as a result of reductions in leaf area and leaf photosynthetic rate as a result of early-season pear thrips feeding damage. The host plant meristem (growing tips of shoots), terminals, and other tender plant parts above the soil surface may be impacted. PAbs and MAbs produced to the purified ZWBNV NP and MAb produced to ZPBNV NP strongly with the homologous antigens. First, observations were done on 160 chili plants in the infested cage thrips which obtained from chili plantation, cucumbers and squash. By clicking the “Get Started” button, I authorize Orkin to contact me about their services at this number using an auto dialer. Chilli thrips life cycle 4 stages-eggs, larvae, pupa, adult. Access scientific knowledge from anywhere. Tomato spotted wilt tospovirus (TSWV) is the type member of the Tospovirus genus in the family Bunyaviridae. The silvery color occurs at the beginning of the attack while the brownish color occurs on the observation of the last day. Besides, tests Elisa was also done on the affected leaves. Symptoms and host range were similar to those described for infection by Cucumber leaf spot virus (CLSV) (1). Tospoviruses belong to the sole phytovirus genus, Tospovirus, in the family Bunyaviridae. ... annuum) and eggplant (Solanum melongend). Deformed, crinkly new shoots and leaves as well as brown or gray scars, especially on the bot- tom sides of mature foliage are key evidence. Chilli thrips, Scirtothrips dorsalis, was first detected in southern highbush blueberries in Florida in Orange, Sumter and Hernando counties during the summer of 2008. ... Damage to plants caused by thrips occurs in buds, leaves and flowers of plants. The thrips attack was allowed to happen naturally without spraying plants by insecticide. Chilli thrips are usually detected in the landscape by the distinctive damage they do to plants while feeding. Thrips are a common garden pest that feed on and infect a variety of different plants. Immature chilli thrips are also pale in color and resemble the immatures of many other thrips species. Thrips feeding damage and a crushed thrips extract stimulated significantly greater production of eihylene than could be explained by either one-time or semicontinuous mechanical damage alone, suggesting that ethylene-inducing cues may be transferred to the plant during feeding. (Some kitchen garden plants: tomato and other Solanaceae, melon and other Cucurbitaceae). Leaf area in the infested trees was reduced by approximately 20% relative to undamaged control trees. The adult chilli thrips is approximately 1⁄2 the length of the western flower thrip. Thrips cause serious economic losses in many agricultural systems each year including vegetables and ornamentals. Such condition makes the soil can be planted only with specific crops that adapt to the wet conditions [3,4]. Host plants: Chilli thrips don’t limit themselves to roses. Amongst these, the chilli crop suffers to a … The following photos demonstrate damage that is being attributed to the Chilli Thrips, Scirtothrips dorsalis Hood. In the eggplant experiment, insect populations were monitored. Feeding causes distortion and discoloration, and severe infestations can lead to defoliation and stunted growth [3]. The location of thrips attack on chili leaves is at the tip of the leaf, the middle of the leaf and the base of the leaf. In response, leaves, buds and fruits may turn bronze in color, Ludwig said. Chilli thrips, (Scirtothrips dorsalis Hood; Thysanoptera: Thripidae), is an economically important pest of vegetable, fruit, and ornamental crops throughout Asia, Africa, Oceania, the Caribbean and some parts of South America and is an invasive pest in several US states (Figure 1) (Kumar et al. The virus caused local and systemic infections on Cucumis sativus, Nicotiana benthamiana, and N. clevelandii and induced local necrotic lesions only on Chenopodium quinoa, C. amaranticolor, C. ficifolium, C. murale, Petunia hybrida, Cucurbita melo, Zinnia elegans, and Spinacia oleracea. Unfortunately for the home gardener, their detection is difficult due to their relative small size, under a millimeter in length, i.e. Elisa Test Leaf Plants Attacked Chili Thrips, of Thripidae only 14 species currently reported thrips, Chlorophyll Levels Chili Leaves Esophageal Thri. Typically, chilli thrips complete their life cycle in 14 to 20 days and are capable of reproducing both sexually and asexually. High nitrogen, content on the leaves of young shoots or leaves may. 2006b, 2010; Arthurs et al. Because this pest is so small and hard to detect, it is nearly impossible to identify infested plants early enough to prevent damage. Chilli thrips favor new growth. Thrips are insects that damage agricultural plants such as chili plants (Capsicum annuum L.). In India, chilli (Capsicum annuum L.) suffers with a characteristic leaf curl symptoms due to the attack of mite, Polyphagotarsonemus latus (Banks) (Acari: Tarsonemidae) and thrips, Scirtothrips dorsalis Hood (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) or both. Seventeen distinct species are established by characteristics such as the host range, vector specificity and amino acid identity of nucleocapsid protein (NP). than the leaf buds, leaf size over broader than leaf buds. Serious problems with thrips have also been noted in the Orlando area. Figure 2. Chilli thrips have a rapid life cycle, and can develop from egg to adult in slightly less than two weeks under our Southern California climate. Thrips were collected in 70% alcohol. … Herbivory byThrips tabaci affected production of the phytohormone ethylene from living onion foliage. A+ BBB Rating. There are 15 species of predatory thrips were found in the field experiment of Jambi University. A thrip larva emerges from an egg deposited on a host plant then feeds on that plant during its first two instars. They are native to southeast Asia, but have been found in places as far away as Europe, Kenya, Madagascar and Venezuela. The survey was conducted using the transect line. American Journal of Agricultural and Biological Science, Effect of Pachyrrizus erosus Extraction the Thrips Attack Phenomenon (Thripidae) on Capsicum annuum L. Leave), Effect of Application of UV Irradiated Beauveria bassiana and Metarhizium anisopliae on Larval Weight and Mortality of Spodoptera litura, The Effect of Local Micro Organism and Mycorrhizal Fungi on Anatomical and Morphological Responses of Red Chili (Capsicum annuum L.) at Different Soil Water Level, The abundance of Thrips Parvispinus Karny (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) on various crops in Jambi region, Sumatera, Indonesia, Characterization of micro plate method of enzyme linked immunosorbent assay for detection of plant viruses, Thrips Transmission of Tospoviruses: Future Possibilities for Management, Impact of Pear Thrips Damage on Sugar Maple Physiology: A Whole-Tree Experiment, Thrips Feeding and Oviposition Injuries to Economic Plants, Subsequent Damage and Host Responses to Infestation, Herbivory in Relation to Plant Nitrogen Content, Population Dynamics and Thrips(Thysanoptera)Attack on Chili Plant (Capsicum annuumL.) The results showed that there were 32 types of plants infested by thrips. Due to the instability of virus particles, it is difficult to purify viral proteins from infected plants. Chilli thrips attack more than 100 crops, including chili peppers, tea, strawberries, tomatoes and tobacco which can lead to significant crop loss. Of the 5,000 or so known species, only a few hundred attack cultivated plants. The MAb to PBNV NP and the aniserum to WBNV NP strong cross-reacted with the NPs of the WSMoV, HT-1 and WBNV, and cross-reacted weakly reacted with that of CCSV in immunoblotting. This is the first demonstration of increased ethylene production from insect-infested intact plants. leaves, then the leaves dry and turns into brown and, h, compared with 152 nmol healthy flowers. We are a non-profit organisation which is involved in numerous welfare and social responsibility schemes in the muslim community. The larva emerges from eggs deposited on the host plant and feeds during its first two larval stages. Chilli thrips can cause serious damage to plants, as they have piercing mouthparts that extract the contents of epidermal cells, leading to necrosis of plant tissue. Thrips attack in chilli. © 2008-2021 ResearchGate GmbH. Crop yields were often significantly greater when oxamyl followed fumigation, as compared to fumigation only, which could be due to a reduction in root-knot nematode damage (and in the case of eggplant also reduced foliar damage by insects), and/or to a carbamate growth stimulant response. It then enters a pre-pupal stage and later a pupal stage during which it does not feed. Sporadically, chlorotic spots, sometimes with necrotic centers, were observed on the leaves of plants. Stubby root nematode (Paratrichodorus spp.) Find Phenomenon Thrips Attack On Chili Plant stock images in HD and millions of other royalty-free stock photos, illustrations and vectors in the Shutterstock collection. The thrips vectors and the viruses making up the Tospoviruses have large, overlapping host ranges that make management of virus spread one of the greatest challenges facing agricultural and ornamental industries today. Observations on affected leaves, Analysis of Esophageal Chili Leaves Thrips, Thrips Attack on Chili Plants in Confinement, Then thrips suck networks by immersing the body in, powder as the results of sharpening (Fig. Salivary. They usually are pale yellow in color but sometimes are nearly white. It may prefer young leaves and buds as well as tender plant stems. The thrips attack was allowed to happen naturally without spraying plants by insecticide. A Better Business Bureau Accredited Business. used for mechanical inoculation of various plant species. was reduced only on eggplant when nematode pressure was low (five nematodes per 150 cm3 soil). Chilli crop can be cultivated as an intercrop or as a standalone chilli plantation. Graduate School of Science Education, Jambi University, Jl. Chilli thrips feeding results in scarring, distortion of leaves, discoloration of b… The study was conducted by observing the attacks of thrips on the leaves chili plant. with leaf that is not affected (Table 1). The relationship between TSWV and its vectors, among which the western flower thrips (WFT), is thought to be most important, has only recently begun to be investigated. Department of Plant Pests and Diseases, Faculty of Agriculture. The amount of damage they can do in a very short time is astounding! Adults of chilli thrips (Andrew Derksen, USDA-APHIS, Bugwood.org) Thrips attack symptoms on chilli crop (RARDC Kilinochchi) In this study, two tospoviral NPs were expressed by the engineered Zucchini yellow mosaic virus (ZYMV) vector in our laboratory for the production of polyclonal antibody (PAb) and monoclonal antibodies (MAbs). Moreover, the produced WBNV NP MAb is a unique tool to distinguish WBNV from PBNV, both originated in India. For instance, a single Tospovirus (Tomato spotted wilt virus) alone caused an estimated $1.4 billion in losses in the U.S. over 10 years. The long-term implications of such reductions for tree health are unknown. Fruits they attack include strawberries, blueberries, kiwis, grapes, mangos and citrus. Join ResearchGate to find the people and research you need to help your work. Their rapid life stages and movement make them very difficult to detect. and D.S. The chilli thrips [derivation 1] or yellow tea thrips, Scirtothrips dorsalis Hood, is an extremely successful invasive species of pest-thrips which has expanded rapidly from Asia over the last twenty years, and is gradually achieving a global distribution. Chilli thrips: Scirtothrips dorsalis Symptoms of damage: The infested leaves develop crinkles and curl upwards; Elongated petiole; Buds become brittle and drop down; Early stage, infestation leads to stunted growth and flower production, fruit set are arrested Chilli thrips complete their entire life cycle on a single host plant, which causes serious damage and often transmits harmful pathogens. Observations were carried out at the part of affected leaves, color, shape and location of the attack, leaf structure, chlorophyll content and the content of nitrogen, fats and carbohydrates of affected leaves. In many previous reports, tospoviral proteins were frequently expressed by the bacterial expression systems for purification. All rights reserved. 25% of the more common Wester F lower Thrip ubiquitous to California. Watermelon silver mottle virus (WSMoV) and Calla lily chlorotic spot virus (CCSV) from Taiwan, Peanut bud necrosis virus (PBNV) and Watermelon bud necrosis virus (WBNV) from India, Capsicum chlorosis virus (CaCV) from Australia, and high temperature-recovered gloxinia tospovirus (HT-1) from the United State were clustered in the same WSMoV serogroup. The chili thrips will attack the foliage and basically the entire host plant. Leaf chlorophyll content before and after the chilli, Description: * = significantly different at 5% level, depth of injury in various tissues citr, expanded into a network (Childers and Achor. Immediate identification and implementation of controls are critical. This study suggests that herbivores affect both the phytohormone physiology and secondary chemistry of living plants because ethylene has been shown to enhance production of defensive phytochemicals. Feeding damage reduced stomatal conductance to water vapor. It has most recently been reported in St. Vincent (2004) Florida (2005), Texas (2006), and Puerto Rico (2007). Adults are pale with dark wings and less than 2 mm in length. Unlike flower thrips, that feed primarily on pollen, chilli thrips feed on various plant tissues. Out of three experiments that included oxamyl by itself, root galling caused by Meloidogyne spp. 844-514-3980. The goal of this manuscript is to provide a comprehensive and updated list of thrips species that serve as vectors of tospoviruses along with information pertaining to common names, key diagnostic characters, distribution, important crops economically affected, and thrips and Tospovirus-induced symptoms. Observations in captivity found that thrips attack occurs on the upper leaf surface, occurs at the base, the middle and the edges with silvery attack. If it grows here … it is on the chilli thrips buffet. The infected squash leaves were harvested for purification of the expressed NPs by a method involving differential centrifugation and slab gel electrophoresis. 2013). Of the known 1,710 species of Thripidae only 14 thrips species are currently reported to transmit tospoviruses. Molecular and serological investigation of thrips cells is elucidating mechanisms governing virus entry to cells, the role of TSWV membrane glycoproteins in thrips acquisition, the processes of TSWV replication within thrips cells and virus movement from cell to cell. The chili thrips will kill the entire host rose bush or plant quickly if not treated immediately upon noticing the earliest stages of an attack upon the rose bushes or plants in the gardens. Severe infestations will … When oxamyl was applied in combination with pre-plant soil fumigation, small but consistent reductions in root galling were observed. The Tospoviruses are transmitted by at least eight species of thrips and cause serious epidemics in many food, fiber and ornamental crops around the world. Without control in one Texas season a chilli thrips population can increase from 40 to 419 Quadrillion. Thrips feed on their host plants with piercing-sucking mouthparts which repeatedly puncture plant tissues and can leave browned lines that eventually wrinkle and curl. 16 Jambi, Indonesia. The use of an Integrated Pest Management program is the most effective way to help prevent chilli thrip infestations. The Tospoviruses are the only plant infecting members of this large family of animal viruses, many of which cause serious diseases of humans and domestic animals. Keep the soil well irrigated and avoid excessive nitrogen fertilizer application. It is a clipping type a. Ants aphids azalea lacebug borer broad mites on tomatoes. All content in this area was uploaded by Asni Johari on Mar 19, 2018, © 2016 Asni Johari, Siti Herlinda, Chandra Irsan a, American Journal of Agricultural and Biological Sciences, Phenomenon of Thrips (Thysanoptera) Attack on Chili Plant, Sriwijaya University, Jl. Phenomenon of Thrips (Thysanoptera) Attacks on Chili Plant (Capsicum annuum L.). Damage caused a consistent reduction in leaf photosynthetic rates by 4 to 20% although the difference in photosynthesis between control and damaged trees was statistically significant (P < 0.05) for only one of three sampling dates. It is a major pest of many host plants, including vegetable, ornamental and fruit crops. Chilli thrips and mites, characterised by relatively short life cycles, can complete several generations on a crop. Introduction. Experiments were conducted in the fields of College of A … Feedi… Chilli thrips attacks foliage, with both adults and larvae preferentially feeding on young leaves, buds, and fruits. Chilli thrips are extremely small and difficult to distinguish from other thrips species without the aid of a compound microscope. Thrips were collected from the plant on line transect predetermined sampling point. The NP ORFs of PBNV and WBNV were individually introduced in between the P1 and HC-Pro genes of the ZYMV vector for protein expression in the infected squash plants. The study was conducted through a survey of the plants attacked by thrips by using transects. Elisa test results showed that the leaves were attacked by the thrips which derived from chili plantation and host plant do not contain Tospovirus. © 2016 Asni Johari, Siti Herlinda, Chandra Irsan and Yulia Pujiastuti. and cvs., Zones 3–9). Greatest reductions in galling due to oxamyl were found when fumigation provided less than optimal nematode control. Most hot peppers are easy to grow. It attacks more than 100 plant species, including chili peppers, tea, strawberries, tomatoes and many other vegetable, fruit and ornamental crops. Chilli thrips is a very small 0.5 to 1.2 mm. The timing of application of oxamyl did not have much impact on nematode infection, but applications early in the season, preferably starting at planting, appear to be beneficial. Give us a call: The attacks which was caused by the thrips starting from mild to severe attacks. The result will be resurgence, resistance, (50 cages), yellow was attacked virus (50 cages) and, the plant. Some symptoms of damage include the silvering of the leaf surface, crop loss, thickening of the leaf, brown secretion on leaves and fruits and grey to black markings on fruits that often form a ring of scarred tissue and fruit distortion. Information on abundance of Thrips parvispinus and its host plants is very important to check the invasion of this thrips species. New plants can easily be infested when growing alongside infested plants or when infested plants move between properties. Our results demonstrate that high amounts of stable tospoviral NPs can be expressed by the ZYMV expression system and purified by simple procedures. Oxamyl by itself did not provide control of root-knot nematode (Meloidogyne incognita), but insect populations on eggplant were reduced. 2, more than four individuals in one part of, leaves is higher than the lower leaves. Raden Mattaher No. pale yellow-colored thrips that can be found feeding on leaves, flowers and fruits. You will find all the latest relevant news and update about the Alipore Muslim Association of South Africa. To prevent the introduction of chilli thrips, make sure no material is infested prior to planting. In a severe pest attack the No symptoms were seen in inoculated N. tabacum, N. glutinosa, Lycopersicon esculentum, Capsicum annuum, Physalis floridana, Phaseolus vulgaris, and Cucurbita pepo. The manuscript is prepared with special emphasis to the U.S., but information pertaining to other countries is also included. Chilli thrips may be present in all above ground plant parts of its host plants. Levels of nitrogen, fats and carbohydrates of chili leaf which attacked by thrips were not significantly different from control leaves at the level of 5%. Thrips Feeding, ethylene production in intact onions than, damage alone. Ecol., 16: 981-991. beneficial in Australian cotton landscapes. Alternatively, remove leaves from the infected plant and gently tap them over a piece of white paper. Chilli thrips attack more than 150 species of plants, but one of their favorite plants to feed on are roses (Rosa spp. Thrips attack symptoms on chilli crop (RARDC Kilinochchi) Physical barrier for chilli crop (S. Rajesh Kanna, RARDC DoA, Kilinochchi) Previous Next. They are known to attack many other ornamental plants in the garden such as begonias, jasmine and chrysanthemums. Chilli thrips, Scirtothrips dorsalis Hood (Thysanoptera: Thripidae), a recent invader in the Caribbean and southeastern United States, has emerged as a significant pest of landscape ornamental plants and poses a risk to several economically important agricultural crops (Seal et al. Second, observations of thrips population and the attack percentage, as well as the abundance of predators were performed on 400 chili plants in the field experiment in Jambi University. Chilli thrips, Scirtothrips dorsalis, is native to south Asia and has become a worldwide pest in countries having horticulture commodities. Observations in captivity found that thrips attack occurs on the upper leaf surface, occurs at the base, the middle and the edges with silvery attack. We also provide student loans to assist in the education of our members. Chilli thrips attack Houston roses, landscape plants Hurricane Ike could have spread the pest beyond the area September 29, 2008 OVERTON – Chilli thrips, a new invasive insect pest, is causing severe damage to ornamental plants throughout the Houston area. Tospoviruses are known to be exclusively transmitted by thrips belonging to the family Thripidae and subfamily Thripinae. attack [2]. Pear thrips, Taeniothrips inconsequens, were placed in cylindrical, fine-mesh nets enclosing whole tree crowns to examine the effect of pear thrips feeding damage on sugar maple leaf physiology. in Jambi Province, Indonesia, First Report of Cucumber leaf spot virus in Poland. Chilli thrips can cause serious damage to plants, as they have piercing mouthparts that extract the contents of epidermal cells, leading to necrosis of plant tissue. Chilli thrips attack more than 100 crops, including chili peppers, tea, strawberries, tomatoes and tobacco which can lead to significant crop loss. Enter a zip code below to view local branches. There were no effects of pear thrips feeding damage on leaf water use efficiency or leaf conductances to water vapor in the dark, indicating that the pear thrips feeding on sugar maple leaves does not lead to uncontrolled water loss as previously hypothesized. More research is required to understand the effect of crop type, pest pressure, preceding fumigant (1,3-D or metam sodium) and injection timing of oxamyl. populations were low and variable in most experiments, but neither fumigation nor post-plant nematicide applications seemed to have any effect on soil populations at harvest. Chilli thrips “rasp” away developing plant tissue with their mouth parts, then suck juices from the wound. The yields of the purified NPs of WBNV and PBNV from 100 g infected tissues were approximately 1.25 ~ 2.5 mg and 0.1~0.2 mg, respectively. Thrips attacks on chili plant lower chlorophyll content and damage the structure of the leaf cells. The Official Website of the Alipore Muslim Association of South Africa. This pest was found attacking roses in Palm Beach County. Achor, 1995. Thrips are insects that damage agricultural plants such as chili plants (Capsicum annuum L.). Chilli thrips have slender bodies with four wings and eight segmented antennae. To identify this nuisance in your garden, check the leaves, buds, flowers, and fruits of your plants for white splotches and black feces. The members of Sphecidae, Araneidae, Theridiidae and Coccinellidae were found mostly. The objective of this test was to compare efficacy of foliar spray applications of five … I understand my consent is not required to make a purchase. In Jambi province there was not any report about the attacks phenomenon of thrips on chili plants. Thrips parvispinus was highest on chili, melon, cucumber, eggplant and squash. This is because they prefer new growth, which roses are continually producing. Results of research in the field shows that the population of thrips, the percentage of the attack and the abundance of insect predators of thrips fluctuate and the highest is at the age of 8 mst chili plants. It then enters a pre-pupal stage and later a pupal (metamorphosis) stage when it does not feed. 番茄斑萎病毒屬 (Tospovirus) 是Bunyaviridae科中唯一感染植物之一屬,為具有三條單股線狀負極性或雙極性的RNA分子和脂質蛋白套膜 (lipoprotein envelope) 之球型病毒。依其寄主範圍、媒介薊馬種類及核鞘蛋白 (nucleocapsid protein, NP) 序列相似度等分為17個病毒種 (species)。根據核鞘蛋白血清學上的親緣關係又可分為三個血清群 (serogroup) 和四個血清型 (serotype)。而於台灣所分離到的西瓜銀斑病毒 (Watermelon silver mottle virus, WSMoV) 即為番茄斑萎病毒屬之一員,與分離自印度的花生頂芽壞疽病毒 (Peanut bud necrosis virus, PBNV) 和西瓜頂芽壞疽病毒 (Watermelon bud necrosis virus, During April 2003, four young cucumber plants with slight stunting and delay of flowering were found in two commercial greenhouses in the Wielkopolska Region in Poland. An understanding of these events will provide a foundation for management strategies to limit TSWV spread, such as production of transgenic plants that will block both thrips acquisition and inoculation, and new assays for detecting infective thrips populations. In the dry season, farmers generally cultivate rice [5], while others cultivate several vegetables, such as cucumber, bittermelon, yard long beans, ridge gourd [3], and chilli, ... Chilli is a dominant vegetable crop cultivated in freshwater swamp. They will not go away on their own! Raya Palembang-Prabumulih Km 32, Ogan Ilir, Indralaya 30662, Indonesia, from attack symptoms on leaves marked, environment. Chilli thrips attack more than 100 crops, including chili peppers, tea, strawberries, tomatoes and tobacco which can lead to significant crop loss. Infestations by chilli thrips are usually first detected in the landscape by the distinctive damage caused to the host plants. In addition, MAbs to WBNV NP strongly reacted with the NPs of WSMoV and HT-1, but did not react with those of PBNV and CCSV. hole, maxillary stylet widen the holes on the surface, Description: * tn = not significantly different at 5% level, Table 2.