The star is about one-fifth the radius of the Sun with a surface temperature estimated to be 3 000 K (2 730 °C; 4 940 °F). [8][9][10][11], GJ 1214 b was first detected by the MEarth Project, which searches for the small drops in brightness that can occur when an orbiting planet briefly passes in front of its parent star. On the basis of planetary models[15] it has been suggested that GJ 1214 b has a relatively thick gaseous envelope. A super-Earth is defined as a planet between one and ten times the mass of the Earth. [7] GJ 1214 b could be a rocky planet with an outgassed hydrogen-rich atmosphere, a mini-Neptune, or an ocean planet. The parent star is 42 light-years from the Sun, in the constellation Ophiuchus where its sector name comes from. Credit: NASA, ESA, and D. Aguilar (Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics). In December 2010, a study was published showing the spectrum to be largely featureless over the wavelength range of 750–1000 nm. Follow-up radial-velocity measurements were then made with the HARPS spectrograph on the ESO's 3.6-meter telescope at La Silla, Chile; those measurements succeeded in providing independent evidence for the reality of the planet. This super-Earth is about 2.7 times Earth's diameter and weighs almost seven times as much. "A huge fraction of its mass is made up of water." In particular, it is unclear if hydrogen and helium are present or if the atmosphere is water dominated. As of 2017, GJ 1214 b is the most likely known candidate for being an ocean planet. They then observed the star more closely and confirmed that it dimmed by roughly 1.5% every 1.58 days. An update on the atmosphere of super-Earth GJ1214b, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Gliese_1214_b&oldid=994903108, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, This page was last edited on 18 December 2020, at 03:50. [1][14], While very little is known about GJ 1214 b, there has been speculation as to its specific nature and composition. “A huge fraction of its mass is made up of water.” GJ 1214b was discovered in 2009 by the ground-based MEarth (pronounced “mirth”) Project, which is led by CfA’s David Charbonneau. GJ 1214b, first discovered in December 2009, is 2.7 times the size of Earth and 6.5 times as massive. For instance, if GJ 1214b initially formed beyond the snow line it would contain more icy material than if it formed closer to its star. The two planets fall in the middle range in mass, between smaller, rockier planets such as Earth and larger gas giants such as Jupiter. Image: This is an illustration of the hypothetical appearance of the exoplanet GJ 1214b, which is known as a "super-Earth" type planet because it is slightly more than six Earth masses. the interior is assumed to be composed primarily of a water core surrounded by more water, proportions of the total mass consistent with the mass and radius are about 25% rock and 75% water, covered by a thick envelope of gases such as hydrogen and helium (c. GJ 1214 bは、木星型惑星よりも … Although no clear signs were observed of water vapor or any other molecule, the authors of the study believe the planet may have an atmosphere composed mainly of water vapor. GJ 1214b … Astronomers have claimed the existence of a new class of planet: a "water-world" with a thick, steamy atmosphere. GJ 1214b has an estimated mass of about 6 to 7 times the mass of Earth, with a radius about 2.7 times the radius of Earth, a low mass indicates that the planet is composed mostly of water. This image shows an artist's view of the planet Gliese 1214 b in front of its host star. [1], In December 2013, NASA reported that clouds may have been detected in the atmosphere of GJ 1214 b. GJ 1214b is classified as a water-world, and is the only example of such a planet yet to be discovered. For that reason, scientists have nicknamed the planet "the waterworld". Because a thick and cloud-free hydrogen-rich atmosphere would have produced detectable spectral features, such an atmosphere appears to be ruled out. It is thought GJ 1214b once orbited in the habitable zone around its host star, which may have allowed life to exist in its warm oceans. The planet orbits a small red dwarf star which has only 16% the mass of our own sun. "GJ 1214b is like no planet we know of," Berta said. Here we report observations of the transiting planet GJ 1214b, which has a mass of 6.55 M_Earth and a radius 2.68 times Earth's radius (R_Earth), indicating that it is intermediate in stature between Earth and the ice giants of the Solar System. A new analysis detailing the atmosphere of GJ 1214b—a planet located about 40 light years from earth and one that researchers have studied since 2009—appeared in the March issue of The Astrophysical Journal. "A huge fraction of its mass is made up of water." After COROT-7b, it was the second super-Earth to be known[1] and is the first of a new class of planets with small size and relatively low density. GJ 1214b is now a hot world with temperatures around 200C (392F). GJ 1214b must be made of a significant quantity of water -- 75% water -- in addition to some rock and iron. It is estimated that this planet was originally shaped ice planet far from its parent star. [13], GJ 1214 b may be cooler than any other known transiting planet prior to the discovery of Kepler-16b in 2011 by the Kepler mission. GJ 1214b stands out among the detected low-mass exoplanets, because it is, so far, the only one amenable to transmission spectroscopy. GJ 1214b, also known as Gliese 1214b, is 42 light years from Earth and was discovered in November 2009. Because of the estimated old age of the planetary system and the calculated hydrodynamic escape rate of 9×105 kg s−1, scientists conclude that there has been a significant atmospheric loss during the lifetime of the planet and any current atmosphere cannot be primordial. If the mutual inclination between GJ 1214b and a hypothetical habitable zone planet is small, the probability of detection is ∼20% (Gillon et al. [1] Given the planet's mass and radius, its density can be calculated. This artist’s conception shows the newly discovered super-Earth GJ 1214b, which orbits a red dwarf star 40 light-years from our Earth. [6], It is a super-Earth, meaning it is larger than Earth but is significantly smaller (in mass and radius) than the gas giants of the Solar System. Gliese 1214 b (often shortened to GJ 1214 b) is an exoplanet that orbits the star Gliese 1214, and was discovered in December 2009. By comparing the observed spectrum before and during transits, the spectrum of the planetary atmosphere can be inferred. "GJ 1214b is like no planet we know of," study lead author Zachory Berta of the Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics in Cambridge, Mass., said in a statement. 글리제 1214 b는 지구로부터 뱀주인자리 방향으로 약 40광년 떨어진 곳에 있는 글리제 1214 주위를 돌고 있는 외계 행성이다. GJ 1214b … Through a comparison with theoretical models, the density in turn provides limited but highly useful information about the composition and structure of the planet.[1]. GJ 1214 B, also known as Gliese 1214 B, is an exoplanet that orbits the star GJ 1214. The newfound world, GJ1214b, is about 6.5 times as massive as the Earth. [14], Media related to GJ 1214 b at Wikimedia Commons, Coordinates: 17h 15m 18.94s, +4° 57′ 49.7″, "Open Exoplanet Catalogue – Gliese 1214 b", "Mass–radius relationships for solid exoplanets", "10 Real Planets That Are Stranger Than Science Fiction", "Release 13-383 – NASA's Hubble Sees Cloudy Super-Worlds With Chance for More Clouds", "Astronomers Find Super-Earth Using Amateur, Off-the-Shelf Technology", Astronomers Find World with Thick, Inhospitable Atmosphere and an Icy Heart. The planet, GJ1214b, has a mass about six times that of Earth and its interior is likely mostly made of water ice. The ground-based MEarth Project, led by CfA’s David Charbonneau, discovered GJ 1214b in 2009. Gliese 1214 b (thường được rút ngắn thành GJ 1214 b aka Ocean Planet) là một ngoại hành tinh quay quanh ngôi sao Gliese 1214, và được phát hiện vào tháng 12 năm 2009. GJ 1214b occupies an intriguing location in the planetary mass-radius diagram, inasmuch For an iron core mass fraction similar to Earth's (30%), GJ 1214b needs 0.3%–1.2% of its mass in a pure H 2 gas layer at the nominal mass and radius. GJ 1214 may be a good target to search for a habitable zone planet. 글리제 1214 b는 그 질량과 반지름이 태양계 내 가스 행성들보다 작은 것으로 검증된 두 번째 외계 행성이다(첫 번째로 검증된 행성은 CoRoT-7b이다). Image credit: CfA/David Aguilar [7] It is possible to propose structures by assuming different compositions, guided by scenarios for the formation and evolution of the planet. “ A huge fraction of its mass is made up of water. A Framework For Characterizing The Atmospheres Of GJ 1214b-type Low-mass Low-density Transiting Planets 2012 FORTNEY J., NETTELMANN N., KEMPTON E., MORDASINI Ch., ZAHNLE K. & 3 additional authors BAAS, 44, no 5, 103.05 abstract Its luminosity is only 0.33% that of the Sun. GJ 1214 bは、へびつかい座の方向に約42光年離れた位置にある恒星 GJ 1214を公転している太陽系外惑星で、2009年12月に発見された。 2017年現在、GJ 1214 bは海洋惑星である可能性が最も高い候補である 。 そのため、科学者たちはGJ 1214 bをThe waterworldと呼んだ 。. GJ 436b is categorized as a "warm Neptune" because it is much closer to its star than frigid Neptune is to the sun. Gliese 1214 is a dim M4.5 red dwarf in the constellation Ophiuchus with an apparent magnitude of 14.7. Gliese 1214 b[3] (often shortened to GJ 1214 b) is an exoplanet that orbits the star Gliese 1214, and was discovered in December 2009. Its parent star is 48 light-years from the Sun, in the constellation Ophiuchus. Clouds in Atmosphere of Exoplanet GJ 1214b (Artist's View).tif 4,000 × 3,000; 7.92 MB CompositionOfKepler-10b.jpg 720 × 541; 54 KB Exoplanet Comparison GJ … It is thought the planet originally formed as an ice world far from its host star. Scientists have debated over GJ 1214b since the planet was discovered back in 2009. Due to the relatively small size of GJ 1214 b's parent star, it is feasible to perform spectroscopic observations during planetary transits. [7] Because of the varying pressure at depth, models of a water world include "steam, liquid, superfluid, high-pressure ices, and plasma phases" of water. "GJ 1214b is like no planet we know of," Berta said. [12] Further observations are necessary to determine the composition of its atmosphere. [1], The radius of GJ 1214 b can be inferred from the amount of dimming seen when the planet crosses in front of its parent star as viewed from Earth. Water on GJ 1214b would now have a very strange consistency and would seem very alien to us, as a result of high temperatures and atmospheric pressure The ground-based MEarth Project, led by CfA's David Charbonneau, discovered GJ 1214b in 2009. GJ 1214b is a huge “waterworld” three times the size of Earth that can be found 42 light-years away from our solar system. To my mind, that makes it more of a "sub-Neptune" than a "super-Earth," but this is semantics. [7] Some of the solid-phase water could be in the form of ice VII. The exoplanet, orbiting a small star only 40 light-years away from us, has a mass about six times that of the Earth. In early 2009, the astronomers running the project noticed that the star GJ 1214 appeared to show drops in brightness of that sort. Its parent star is 48 light-years from the Sun, in the constellation Ophiuchus. Spectroscopic observations with NASA's Hubble Space Telescope provide evidence of high clouds blanketing the planet. Previous observations of the planet's size and mass demonstrated it has a low density for its size, leading astronomers to conclude the planet is some kind of solid body with an atmosphere. Its equilibrium temperature is believed to be in the range of 393–555 K (120–282 °C; 248–539 °F), depending on how much of the star's radiation is reflected into space. It is located at a distance of approximately 47 light years from Earth. Recent searches for planets around other stars (“exoplanets”) have shown that super-Earths like GJ 1214b are among the most common type of planets in the Milky Way galaxy. The planet was discovered in December 2009. Another possibility is that there may be a thick layer of high clouds, which absorbs the starlight. [7] GJ 1214 b is also significant because its parent star is relatively near the Sun and because it transits (crosses in front of) that parent star, which allows the planet's atmosphere to be studied using spectroscopic methods. It appears to be rather hot and surrounded by a thick atmosphere, which makes it inhospitable for life as we know it on Earth. [4][5] For that reason, scientists have nicknamed the planet "the waterworld". it would be more like thick hot ice or alternately acting more like a gas than a liquid. [1][14] Water planets could result from inward planetary migration and originate as protoplanets that formed from volatile ice-rich material beyond the snow-line but that never attained masses sufficient to accrete large amounts of H/He nebular gas. The planet, designated GJ 1214b, is only 2.7 times the diameter of Earth — one of the smallest exoplanets found — and orbits just over a million miles from its star (compare to Earth’s 92 million miles) in a zippy 38-hour ‘year.’ Given its size and density, astronomers speculated that GJ 1214b may very well be covered in deep oceans. A paper was then published in Nature announcing the planet and giving estimates of its mass, radius, and orbital parameters. Since astronomers know GJ 1214b's mass and size, they're able to calculate its density, which turns out to be just 2 grams per cubic centimeter (g/cc). In this paper, we report observations of three transits of GJ 1214b, taken as part of the Apache Point Observatory GJ 1214b was one of the first Super-Earths discovered, and the first exoplanet to have clouds found in its atmosphere. Its low mass suggests that unlike Earth GJ 1214b may only have a small amount of rock in its composition. Based on its size and mass—2.8 Earth radii and 6.6 Earth masses—GJ 1214b … As of 2017, GJ 1214 b is the most likely known candidate for being an ocean planet. Up to date there is no consensus about the composition of its envelope although most studies suggest a high molecular weight atmosphere. GJ 1214b’s size and mass (2.65 and 6.45 times that of the Earth, respectively;Carter et al.2010) give it a density intermediate to that of our solar system’s inner (rocky) and outer (gas-dominated) planets. The actual bulk make-up of GJ 1214b is determined by its unknown formation, migration, and evolution history. GJ 1214b is different. GJ 1214b has a radius of about 2.7 times that of Earth and is about 6.5 times as massive, putting it squarely into the class of exoplanets known as super-Earths. It is a potential water world that may be comprised of at least 75% water. While its mass is similar to CoRoT-7b, its diameter is larger, so its density is lower. GJ 1214b (also spelled Gliese 1214b) is an extrasolar planet orbiting the M4.5V dwarf star GJ 1214 in the constellation Ophiuchus, about 42 light-years away. [1] The loss of primordial atmosphere was indirectly confirmed in 2020 as no helium was detected at Gliese 1214 b. [7] If it is a waterworld, it could possibly be thought of as a bigger and hotter version of Jupiter's Galilean moon Europa. [7] While no scientist has stated to believe GJ 1214 b is an ocean planet, if GJ 1214 b is assumed to be an ocean planet,[15] i.e. The planet GJ 1214b, shown here in an artist’s conception with two hypothetical moons, orbits a “red dwarf” star 40 light-years from Earth. Earth’s water is equal to 0.05 percent of its mass, while GJ 1214b’s water contributes 10 percent of its mass! Illustration of planet GJ 1214b 5. 0.05%). Its host star, GJ1214, is a small, red type M star about one-fifth the size of the Sun. The scrutinized planet, which is known as GJ 1214b, is classified as a super-Earth type planet because its mass is intermediate between those of Earth and Neptune. 2011). Despite being hot its high atmospheric pressures would stop its oceans from boiling. “GJ 1214b is like no planet we know of,” Berta said. The mass of the planet can be inferred from sensitive observations of the parent star's radial velocity, measured through small shifts in stellar spectral lines due to the Doppler effect. This H 2 gas layer is small compared to the H 2 O envelopes in the water planet scenario, but is still large compared to Earth's atmosphere (which accounts for roughly 0.0001% of Earth's mass). According to Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics scientist and lead author Zachory Berta, "GJ1214b is like no planet we know of. GJ 1214b Mass and Radius GJ 1214b is estimated to have a mass of around 6 to 7 times that of Earth, with a radius of around 2.7 times that of Earth, its low mass suggests a large amount of the planet is made up of water.
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