They also evaluated whether detainees' psychological state allowed for the, continued use of the CIA's enhanced interrogation techniques, including some detainees whom, they were themselves interrogating or had interrogated. Enhanced interrogation techniques or alternative set of procedures were terms adopted by the George W. Bush administration in the United States to describe interrogation methods used by US military intelligence and the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) to extract information from individuals captured in the “War on Terror” after the September 11 attacks in 2001. Thirteen "enhanced interrogation techniques" — interrogation methods — are at the center of the Senate Intelligence committee report about the CIA's use of harsh interrogation tactics after the Sept. 11, 2001, terror attacks. counterterrorism, or any relevant cultural or linguistic expertise. Zubaydah was described as "hysterical" after these sessions and "distressed to a level that he was unable to effectively communicate." the Department of Justice, and the White House. In one instance, Zubaydah was slammed against a concrete wall, the Senate report said. partially nude and chained to a concrete floor died from suspected hypothermia at the facility. techniques’ from torture, in claiming that ‘enhanced interrogation techniques’ only created discom- fort, not pain. In 2005, the psychologists formed a company specifically for the purpose of conducting their. The CIA withheld or restricted information relevant to these, agencies' missions and responsibilities, denied access to detainees, and provided inaccurate. Nudity — This technique was used with others. 6. The CIA's, representations to the OLC about the techniques were also inconsistent with how the techniques, In March 2005, the CIA submitted to the Department of Justice various examples of the, "effectiveness" of the CIA's enhanced interrogation techniques that were inaccurate. The CIA placed detainees in ice water "baths." Top US Government officials including Dick Cheney, Colin Powell, George Tenet, Condoleezza Rice, Donald Rumsfeld, and John Ashcroft discussed at length whether or not the CIA could legally use harsh techniques against Abu Zubaydah.Condoleezza Rice specifically mentione… There were almost, no detailed records of the detentions and interrogations at the CIA's COBALT detention facility, in 2002, and almost no such records for the CIA's GRAY detention site, also in Country At, CIA detention facilities outside of Country the CIA kept increasingly less-detailed records of. Mutual Fund and ETF data provided by Refinitiv Lipper. Shortly thereafter, the CIA outsourced vktually all aspects of the program. '"^ Internal CIA records describe the waterboarding of Khalid Shaykh Mohammad as, evolving into a "series of near drownings. "^, #4: The conditions of confinement for CIA detainees were harsher than the CIA had. OLC. This material may not be published, broadcast, rewritten, or redistributed. information on the CIA's Detention and Interrogation Program to these agencies. The CIA was not prepared to take custody of its first detainee. 11. That individual acknowledged lacking, the requisite expertise to review the effectiveness of the CIA's enhanced interrogation, techniques, and concluded only that "the program," meaning all CIA detainee reporting, regardless of whether it was connected to the use of the CIA's enhanced inteiTogation, techniques, was a "great success. country had no independent reason to hold the detainees. impeding a proper legal analysis of the CIA's Detention and Interrogation Program. Associated Press 2014-12-10T10:15:00Z The letter F. An envelope. action was rarely taken against the interrogators involved. At numerous times thi'oughout the CIA's Detention and Interrogation Program, CIA personnel, assessed that the most effective method for acquiring intelligence from detainees, including from, detainees the CIA considered to be the most "high-value," was to confront the detainees with, information already acquired by the Intelligence Community. In interviews conducted in 2003 with the Office of Inspector General, CIA's leadership and senior attorneys acknowledged that they had little or no awareness of, operations at COBALT, and some believed that enhanced interrogation techniques were not used, Although CIA Director Tenet in January 2003 issued guidance for detention and interrogation, activities, serious management problems persisted. The CIA, kept few formal records of the detainees in its custody at COBALT. At the time, however, the detainees Country | was holding included detainees being held. [T]here is no middle ground. In the, remaining cases, the CIA inaccurately claimed that specific, otherwise unavailable information. All rights reserved. interrogations or coercive interrogation techniques. The interrogator had the option to put a "harmless" insect inside the small box when the technique was used on Zubaydah, because he hated bugs, Rizzo said. Quotes displayed in real-time or delayed by at least 15 minutes. not contact other elements of the U.S. Government with interrogation expertise. #5: The CIA repeatedly provided inaccurate information to the Department of Justice. By that time, 38 of the 39 detainees identified as having been subjected to the CIA's, enhanced interrogation techniques had already been subjected to the techniques.The CIA did, not inform the president or vice president of the location of CIA detention facilities other than, At the direction of the White House, the secretaries of state and defense - both principals on the, National Security Council - were not briefed on program specifics until September 2003. part due to host country political concerns. inaccurate and was similar to the inaccurate information provided by the CIA to the Congress. The CIA did not hold any detainees after April 2008. The department warned, however, that if the facts, provided by the CIA were to change, its legal conclusions might not apply. Other detainees provided significant accurate intelligence prior to, or without having been, While being subjected to the CIA's enhanced interrogation techniques and afterwards, multiple, CIA detainees fabricated information, resulting in faulty intelligence. The host. from other nations, and legal and oversight concerns. enhanced interrogation techniques were developed in the wake of 9/11. Can’t pay your mortgage during coronavirus? From the beginning of the program, the CIA faced, significant challenges in finding nations willing to host CIA clandestine detention sites. An, internal CIA email from July 2003 noted that "... theWH [White House] is extremely concerned, [Secretary] Powell would blow his stack if he were to be briefed on what's been going on. By 2006, the, CIA admitted in its own talking points for CIA Director Porter Goss that, absent an, Administration decision on an "endgame" for detainees, the CIA was "stymied" and "the, program could collapse of its own weight. After an hour of that, he said he was "ready to talk," the CIA said. The CIA led, several detainees to believe they would never be allowed to leave CIA custody alive, suggesting, to one detainee that he would only leave in a coffin-shaped box.^ Oneinterrogator told another, detainee that he would never go to court, because "we can never let the world know what I have, done to you. Contrary to CIA representations to the Department of Justice, the CIA instructed personnel that, the interrogation of Abu Zubaydah would take "precedence" over his medical care,^ resulting in, the deterioration of a bullet wound Abu Zubaydah incurred during his capture. Proponents of ‘enhanced interrogation techniques’ in the United States have claimed that such methods are necessary for obtaining information from uncooperative terrorism subjects. After about a month of detention and interrogation, the CIA recommended he be released to his village, but interrogators instead transferred him to the U.S. military, where he remained in custody for four years. James E. Mitchell & John B. Jessen, Recognizing and Developing Countermeasures to Al Qaeda Resistance to Interrogation techniques: A Resistance Training Perspective. The idea, Rizzo said, was to startle or humiliate the detainee, Zubaydah, and "disabuse him of the notion that he wouldn't be physically hit.". Be the first one to, Senate Report on CIA Torture - 2014 - PDF - Download, Advanced embedding details, examples, and help, Terms of Service (last updated 12/31/2014). Unknown gation techniques and that SERE training methods were “reverse-engineered” into military and CIA interrogation techniques. The Facial Slap/Insult Slap — The interrogator slaps the detainee in the face, with fingers spread, striking between the chin and earlobe, Rizzo explained in his book. The MON made no reference to. "^'' The second reviewer concluded that "there is no objective. including hallucinations, paranoia, insomnia, and attempts at self-harm and self-mutilation. CIA Headquaiters ciicQiira^^ Stations to eonstruct "wish lists" of iproposedi, "thinlc bigf' in terms of that assistance. During the OIG reviews, CIA personnel provided OIG with inaccurate information on the, operation and management of the CIA's Detention and Interrogation Program, as well as on the, effectiveness of the CIA's enhanced interrogation techniques. In surveying the scientific literature, this paper corrects some persistent misconceptions about torture, concluding that some of the most deleterious effects of “enhanced interrogation techniques” are not physical at all, but distinctly psychological. Beginning with the CIA's first detainee, Abu Zubaydah, and continuing with numerous others, the CIA applied its enhanced interrogation techniques with significant repetition for days or, weeks at a time. At one point, Khalid Sheik Mohammad was water-boarded 65 times between the afternoon of March 12, 2003 and the morning of March 13. Additionally, multiple detainees were subjected to, techniques that were applied in ways that diverged from the specific authorization, or were, subjected to enhanced interrogation techniques by interrogators who had not been authorized to, use them. #3: The interrogations of CIA detainees were brutal and far worse than the CIA. By March 2006, the, program was operating in only one country. The detainee would have to hold that position indefinitely, according to a description by Rizzo about this technique used on Zubaydah. That legislation was, approved by the Senate and the House of Representatives in Febniary 2008, and was vetoed by. A full accounting of CIA detentions and interrogations may be impossible, as records in some, cases are non-existent, and, in many other cases, are spai'se and insufficient. These, challenges became increasingly difficult over time. Ability to Quickly Acquire High Value Information. The OLC relied on inaccurate CIA representations about, Abu Zubaydah's status in al-Qa'ida and the interrogation team's "certain[ty]" that Abu, Zubaydah was withholding information about planned terrorist attacks. In some cases, detainees were hosed down over and over again as they were naked and shackled, standing in a sleep deprivation pose. #10: The CIA coordinated the release of classified information to the media, including, inaccurate information concerning the effectiveness of the CIA's enhanced interrogation, The CIA's Office of Public Affairs and senior CIA officials coordinated to share classified, information on the CIA's Detention and Interrogation Program to select members of the media to, counter public criticism, shape public opinion, and avoid potential congressional action to restrict, the CIA's detention and inteiTogation authorities and budget. In mid-2004, the CIA temporarily, suspended the use of its enhanced interrogation techniques after the CIA inspector general, recommended that the CIA seekan updated legal opinion from the Office of LegalCounsel. The CIA did not respond to Chairman Bob Graham's requests for additional, information in 2002, noting in its own internal communications that he would be leaving the. Some of the plots that the CIA claimed to have "disrupted" as a result of the CIA's enhanced, interrogation techniques were assessed by intelligence and law enforcement officials as being. Other times, the detainees at COBALT, were subjected to what was described as a "rough takedown," in which approximately five CIA, officers would scream at a detainee, drag him outside of his cell, cut his clothes off, and secure, him with Mylar tape. Quotes displayed in real-time or delayed by at least 15 minutes. memoranda signed on May 30, 2005, and July 20, 2007, relied on these representations, determining that the techniques were legal in part because they produced "specific, actionable. This includes the provision of inaccurate statements similar to those provided to other elements, of the U.S. Government and later to the public, as well as instances in which specific questions, from White House officials were not answered truthfully or fully. #9; The CIA impeded oversight by the CIA's Office of Inspector General. provide proper leadership and management, were also not held to account. regarding the operation and effectiveness of the CIA's Detention and Interrogation Program. approved by the Department of Justice or had not been authorized by CIA Headquarters. acquiring intelligence or gaining cooperation from detainees. The CIAbegan interrogation training more than seven months, after taking custody of Abu Zubaydah, and more than thi'ee months after the CIA began using its, "enhanced inteiTogation techniques." The waterboarding technique was physically harmful, inducing convulsions and vomiting. Abu. The CIA subsequently resisted efforts by Vice Chairman John D. Rockefeller IV, to investigate the program, including by refusing in 2006 to provide requested, The CIA restricted access to information about the program from members of the Committee, beyond the chairman and vice chairman until September 6, 2006, the day the president publicly, acknowledged the program, by which time 117 of the 119known detainees had already entered, CIA custody. 3. The CIA was using this technique prior to 2004 without approval by the Justice Department. #20; The CIA's Detention and Interrogation Program damaged the United States'. ... enhanced interrogation techniques had already been subjected to the techniques.The CIA did. Enhanced Interrogation: Inside the Minds and Motives of the Islamic Terrorists Trying To Destroy America - Kindle edition by Mitchell, James E., Harlow, Bill. An "informal, operational assessment" of the program, led by two senior CIA officers who were not part of the, CIA's Counterterrorism Center, determined that it would not be possible to assess the, effectiveness of the CIA's enhanced interrogation techniques without violating "Federal Policy. These concerns were regularly overridden by, CIA management, and the CIA made few corrective changes to its policies governing the, program. Powered and implemented by FactSet Digital Solutions. information from the use of the techniques. intelHgence" and "substantial quantities of otherwise unavailable intelligence" that saved lives. The CIA's Detention and Interrogation Pi-ogram created tensions with U.S. partners and allies, leading to formal demarches to the United States, and damaging and complicating bilateral, In one example, inJune 2004, the secretary ofstate ordered the U.S. ambassador inCountry | to, deliver ademarche to CounteyB/li^ssence demanding [Country | Government] provide full, access to all [Country | detainees" to the International Committee ofthe Red, Cross. Abdominal Slap — The purpose was to cause the detainee to feel fear and despair, to punish certain behavior and humiliate or insult the detainee, according to a description in government documents, obtained by the American Civil Liberties Union in 2009. #12: The CIA's management and operation of its Detention and Interrogation Program, was deeply flawed throughout the program's duration, particularly so in 2002 and early, The CIA's COBALT detention facility in Country | began operations inSeptember 2002 and, ultimately housed more than half of the 119CIA detainees identified in this Study. One detainee, Arsala Khan, hallucinated after 56 hours of standing sleep deprivation in October 2003. '^^ A February 2007 report from the International Committee of the Red Cross, (ICRC), which the CIA acting general counsel initially stated "actually does not sound that far, removed from the realitywas also criticized. The CIA did not hold any detainees after April 2008.” 16 In reference to DOD requests, see for example, James T. Hill, Commander, U.S. Southern Command, “Counter-Resistance Techniques,” memorandum to the Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff, October 25, 2002, and Diane E. The, CIA's review identified risks associated with clandestine detention that led it to conclude that, U.S. military bases were the best option for the CIA to detain individuals under the MON, authorities. critical of the program and written letters expressing concerns to CIA Director Michael Hayden, Director Hayden nonetheless told a meeting of foreign ambassadors to the United States that, every Committee member was "fully briefed," and that "[t]his is not CIA's program. 9. corridor while being slapped and punched. Topics CIA, Torture, Crime, terror, war on terror, document, pdf, download, free download Collection opensource Language English. 5. The interrogator stands about a foot from the detainee's stomach, and slaps the detainee with the back of his hand. CIADirector George Tenet issued formal guidelines for, interrogations and conditions of confinement at detention sites in January 2003, by which time. Moreover, CIA officers told U.S. ambassadors not to discuss the CIA program with State Department officials, preventing the, ambassadors from seeking guidance on the policy implications of establishing CIA detention. #2: The CIA's justification for the use of its enhanced interrogation techniques rested on. Even after the conditions of confinement improved with the construction of new detention, facilities, detainees were held in total isolation except when being interrogated or debriefed by, Throughout the program, multiple CIA detainees who were subjected to the CIA's enhanced. In the present article, we offer an informed, academic perspective on such claims. interrogation techniques and extended isolation exhibited psychological and behavioral issues. The ODNI was providedwith inaccurate and incomplete information about the program, preventing the director of national intelligencefrom effectively carrying out the director's. enhanced interrogation techniques to detainees); Rizzo Interrogation Memorandum, supra note 3, at 1–4 (describing Abu Zubaydah’s supposed possession of critical intelligence and resistance to extant interrogation techniques); Bill Hoffman, John Yoo: I Was Never Asked to Testify for Torture Report, NEWSMAX (Dec. 11, Modern Interrogation Techniques Throughout history, investigators have resorted to a wide variety of techniques intended to breakdown a suspect’s resistance and yield a confession. At the time, no single unit at CIA Headquarters had clear responsibility for CIA detention and. Nordid the reviews seek to confirm whether the intelligence cited by, the CIA as being obtained "as a result" of the CIA's enhanced interrogation techniques was, unique and "otherwise unavailable," as claimed by the CIA, and not previously obtainedfrom, #17: The CIA rarely reprimanded or held personnel accountable for serious and, significant violations, inappropriate activities, and systemic and individual management, CIA officers and CIA contractors who were found to have violated CIA policies or performed. its interrogation activities over the course of the CIA's Detention and Interrogation Program. Been subjected to the Senate report on CIA Torture - 2014 - PDF - Download as,. October 2003 placed detainees in held in foreign government custody CIA 's detention interrogation! Water `` baths. level that he `` should remain incommunicado for the of. Was not prepared to take custody of Abu, Zubaydah, CIA 's most detainees. 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Enhanced interrogation techniques had been approved by the military at Guantánamo and in Iraq disposition of its enhanced interrogation and! November jf, 2002, adetainee who had been detained by the 's! Accountability, recommendations were ovennled by senior CIA leadership from solid foods to liquid missions and responsibilities denied... Which the CIA lacked a plan for the eventual disposition of its enhanced interrogation techniques on... In isolated cells with loud noise or music and only a bucket to use for human waste the... The terrorist threats which the technique involved switching from solid foods to.! In January 2003, by which time buying your second home, here 's how savings... Denied access to detainees, which theCIAinspector general referred to as `` an ongoing would. Notified, the imminent capture of Abu Zubaydah became `` completely unresponsive, with rising! 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